Occurrence of multiple number of losses in pregnancy is known as Recurrent Pregnancy Loss. It is the involuntary ending of a pregnancy that is clinically recognized before 20 weeks. The clinically-recognized pregnancy is the visualization of the pregnancy on an ultrasound or identification of the pregnancy tissue after the pregnancy loss.
- A large number of pregnancy losses occur due to genetic or chromosomal abnormalities and these events are random. The cause of the abnormality might be in the sperm, the egg and the early embryo.
- It is approximated that around 12-15% of the clinically-recognized pregnancies terminate in miscarriages.
- Increase in the risks of miscarriage is associated with an increase in maternal age. This is due to eggs of poor quality which lead to chromosomal and genetic abnormalities.
- It is possible that the parents might have a small genetic irregularity which may affect their children more seriously resulting in a miscarriage.
- An abnormality occurring in the uterus can also lead to a miscarriage.
- Irregularity in the shape of the uterus or poor supply of blood to the uterus can also lead to miscarriages. These may be developed over time.
- The immune system of a woman might also affect multiple pregnancy losses.
Hormonal abnormalities such as diabetes and thyroid diseases also impact recurrent pregnancy loss. However, factors such as environment, stress or occupation do not appear to affect pregnancy loss.
The underlying reason for recurrent pregnancy loss forms the foundation upon which recommendations regarding the treatment are provided. However, despite the results of the work-up, the chances of a successful pregnancy in the future is high. It is estimated that the success rate is 77% if no abnormalities are found and 71% if it was found.