By Dr Kalpesh Patil , Pediatrics
ADHD is an abbreviation for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This problem manifests in the form of excessive activity and attention problems or difficulty in concentrating. It is between the ages of six and twelve that the symptoms begin to appear and are usually present for around six months.
Although it is one of the most regularly studied and analysed psychological conditions in kids and teenagers, the cause in most of the cases is unknown. It is more commonly diagnosed in boys, rather than girls.
Common elements of ADHD include hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity and disruptive behaviour. Additionally, there might be problems with relationships as well as academics. The diagnosis of ADHD requires the symptoms to be prevalent for over six months or longer.
The typical management methods of ADHD include counselling or medicines, either used separately or in combination.
Medication: The preferred medications for ADHD include stimulants, since they have short-term effects on the symptoms of ADHD. Methylphenidate is one such example. Non-stimulant medicines are utilized for people who bear the risk of compulsive or recreational stimulant use. These type of medications include guanfacine, atomoxetine, bupropion and clonidine. Even though these medications are usually safe, over dosage can cause side-effects and contraindications.
Behavioural Therapies: Some of the psychological therapies that are used are:
- Psychoeducational Input
- Family Therapy
- Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
- Interpersonal Psychotherapy
- School-Based Interventions
- Social Skills Training
- Behavioural Peer Intervention
- Parent Management Training
Diet: Dietary modifications can prove beneficial for some children suffering from ADHD. The benefits are usually confined to children having food sensitivities or those who are being medicated using ADHD medicines simultaneously.