Sexually Transmitted Diseases(STDs)

Sexually Transmitted Diseases(STDs)


By Dr Ajay Kumar GuptaSexology

Some examples of sexually transmitted diseases include genital herpes, chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea, warts and HIV/AIDS. These are infections, the main mode of propagation of which is primarily unprotected sexual intercourse; mainly oral, anal and vaginal sex.

Most STDs are symptomless during the initial stages which poses a higher risk of transmission of the disease to other people. A large variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, parasites and viruses can cause STDs. Healthcare providers and doctors have major roles to play in the prevention and treatment of STDs. Most STDs are either curable or treatable.

While certain well-known diseases STDs such as gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilis and chlamydia are curable, diseases such as Hepatitis B, HPV, Herpes and HIV/AIDS, even though treatable, are not curable.

Some of the common curable STDs are discussed below:

  1. Chlamydia: This STD is a result of a bacterial infection of ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’. Symptoms in females include a burning sensation during urination, unusual vaginal discharge and bleeding between periods while men may experience unusual discharge from the penis as well as pain during urination. Without treatment, the infection might spread to the urinary tract which could potentially cause PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease); this is capable of causing problems in pregnancy and may even lead to infertility.
  2. Gonorrhoea: This STD is caused by bacteria present in mucous membranes of the vagina, urethra, mouth, rectum and the eyes and is capable of spreading through contact. Symptoms in males include increased frequency of urination, unusual discharge from the penis as well as pain during urination while the symptoms in women are the same experienced in case of Chlamydia.
  3. Syphilis: It is caused by the bacterium “Treponema pallidum and the disease mainly develops if you have sexual intercourse without any protection, especially with multiple sexual partners. Syphilis can manifest as a congenital disorder and can also spread through blood transfusion. Symptoms include appearance of ulcers around the genitals or the oral region known as a chancre, severe rashes around the hand or feet coupled with other symptoms of mild fever, headache, throat pains and immense fatigue.