By Dr Sharmila Majumdar , Sexology
Infections that are spread by means of sex, especially anal, oral and vaginal sex, are known as Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Initially, most STDs do not show any signs or symptoms. As such, this presents a higher risk of transmitting the disease to others. The STDs can be caused by a large number of bacteria, parasites and viruses. Some of the bacteria which causes STDs are gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis. Genital Herpies, Warts and HIV/AIDS are some of the commonly known viral STDs. Although these diseases are usually spread by sex, non-sexual ways of spreading include contact with contaminated tissues and blood, breastfeeding, etc.
The best method for counteracting the spread of STDs is to have protected sex. Some inoculations may diminish the danger of specific contaminants including hepatitis B and a few types of HPV. Safer sexual practices, for example, utilization of condoms, having lesser number of sexual partners, etc. additionally diminishes the risk. Circumcision in guys might be effective in preventing some infections.
Most STDs are curable or treatable. Of the most well-known diseases, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, are capable of being cured, while hepatitis B, herpes, HPV and HIV/AIDS are treatable, however not curable.
High-risk exposure, for example, that which happens in cases of rape might be dealt preventatively by utilizing various combinations of antibiotics like cefixime, azithromycin and metronidazole. A possibility for treating the partners of patients (known as index cases) having gonorrhea or chlamydia is patient-delivered partner therapy. This is a clinical routine which is used to treat the partners of index cases by prescribing medicines to the patient to give to his/her partner without the examination of the partner by the health care provider.