Common Causes of Fertility Problems in Women

Common Causes of Fertility Problems in Women



By Dr. Pallavi Vasal, Gynaecology

Infertility refers to the woman who is not fertile. It’s an inability of a woman to get pregnant after having an unprotected intercourse for an year or six months or so if you are 35 or older. This also refers to a state of not having menstruation for longer periods or contributing towards contraception.


  1. Fallopian Damage: These are the tubes that carry ovaries to uterus. Damaging of fallopian tube causes increased risk of infertility in women.
  2. Ovulation: It is the damaging of ovaries when fully matured eggs are moved through the tubes to the uterus.
  3. Hormonal Problems: Anomalies in hormonal changing i.e improper working of hormones may result to infertility. Lack of estrogen hormones or irregular thickening in the line of uterus.
  4. Cervical Problems: This problem includes the obstruction of sperms while passing through the cervical canal.
  5. Uterine Issues: You could be having fibroids or polyps while getting pregnant that may cause thickening of uterus(womb).
  6. ‘Unexplained’ Infertility: This could be more dangerous than the normal causes. As cause is unknown , it can lead to any type of disorder relating infertility.
  7. Family History.


  1. Painful sensation in uterus lining.
  2. Having thyroid disorders.
  3. Fibroids or polyps.
  4. Gone through HRT.
  5. The main symptom of infertility is not being able to become pregnant after having an unprotected sex after a year of trying or after six months.
  6. Absence of menstrual periods,menstrual cramps or multiple miscarriages may add to its symptoms.

What are the possible available treatments?

  1. Fertility Medications and Drugs: These drugs trigger ovulation,but irrespective of making a woman fertile it can lead to multiple births or twins.
  2. Surgery: The famous of the surgeries include the laparoscopy surgery. It is basically minimally invasive surgery, that removes the blockage and repairs the fallopian tubes.
  3. Insemination: Often known as artificial insemination, sometimes combines with the surgeries for better results. Sperm from a man is placed into the uterus of a woman to produce better baby.
  4. In-Vitro Fertilization: This process leads to the production of embryos in the laboratory in which sperm is taken from man and egg from a woman and combined to form an embryo in the laboratory.

If you’re a woman thinking about getting pregnant soon or in the future, you may improve your chances of having normal fertility if you:

  • Maintain a normal weight.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Reduce stress.
  • Limit caffeine.