By Dr. Shalini Tiwari , Gynaecology
Immunological Basis of Pregnancy-
When a woman suffers from 2 or more miscarriages, it is termed as Repeated or Recurrent Miscarriages. There are many causes for this issue. However, in about 50% of couples with Recurrent Miscarriages, the entire tests for the causative factors are within normal limits. Then, what is the problem in these Couples? This can be explained by the Immunological reason for repeated miscarriages.
The Immune system is the body’s defence that combats against the infectious microorganisms and other invaders that enters your body. For Example, even when a kidney transplant is required, you cannot just replace it with any random kidney. There has to be some tissue matching, or else your body will reject that kidney.
When there is pregnancy, 50% of it is from the husband, that is immunologically foreign to the mother’s body, but surprisingly, pregnancy is not rejected. This is because the pregnancy is protected by certain immunological mechanisms (like Blocking Antibodies) which prevent the rejection. Unfortunately, in some women these mechanisms are disturbed and hence, when there is conception, mother’s body develops immunological reaction against the pregnancy, leading to miscarriage. This gets repeated in subsequent pregnancies causing to Recurrent Miscarriages.
Active Immunotherapy ( LIT) for Recurrent Miscarriages-
Immunological Rejection is the common cause for about 50% of Recurrent Miscarriages.
What is the solution for that?
Active Immunotherapy can help prevent the Immunological rejection of pregnancy. It involves separation of Lymphocytes (a Special type of white blood cells required for Immunological function) from husband’s blood and injecting them into wife. This is done before the woman conceives so that it can prevent subsequent miscarriages.
Before Actives Immunotherapy, the couple has to be completely investigated for all possible causes of Recurrent Miscarriages. This therapy is an out Patients OPD Procedure and involves spending 4-6 hours at the centre.
Actives Immunotherapy is safe and free from major side effects. However, transient pain at injection site malaise and rarely mild fever can be encountered. The procedure is over all well tolerated.
After the Active Immunotherapy, the couple is advised to make active attempts of conception after a period of 4-6 weeks. The women should conceive within one year after the therapy for optimum results.