By Dr. R Kartheek, Orthopaedics
The knee replacement process involves cutting down the damaged bone as well as the cartilage from one’s thigh bone, shinbone and kneecap and replace it with a prosthesis made up of metal alloys, high rated plastics and polymers.
New advances made in knee replacement, allows surgeons to preserve the important central ligaments of the knee known as the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments.
Types of Knee Replacement-
There are different techniques that have come up as part of knee replacement. They include:
- Unicondylar Knee Replacement: Unicondylar Knee Replacement, also referred to as partial knee replacement, acts as an alternative to total knee replacement, for those patients who are suffering from osteoarthritis, with the damaged mainly confined to only one region of the knee joint.
- Total Knee Replacement: Total Knee Replacement surgery is a safe and extremely effective procedure to provide relief from pain, get the deformity of leg corrected and allow people to resume their regular activities. Improvements in materials along with new techniques have all resulted in the surgery’s effectiveness.
- Revision Knee Replacement: Revision Knee Replacement basically means that a part or all of one’s previous knee replacement requires to be revisited. The operations vary from making minor adjustments to large scale operations where significant amount of bones might require replacement.
- Robotic Knee Replacement: This process involves a surgeon controlling the robotic arm, thereby using the 3D model for guidance and then positions the implant in the exact location, required to ensure the appropriate balance between leg alignment and soft tissue.
Advances in Hip Replacement Surgery
The new advances made in Hip replacement surgery have come up with implantation of materials like polyethylene, which has become a lot more wear resistant. The procedure has become less invasive, thus the time for recovery is short and the implants being of good quality materials, they work better and last for a long period of time.
3D Printed Hip Replacement
This kind of surgery first involves patients going through pre-operative MRI or CT scan. Then the information gets sent to the company, which provides and makes the custom-made cutting guide to provide assistance in planning of surgery required for the patient. The surgeon then makes use of the sterilized custom, 3-D printed cutting guide in the operating area to take the help in performing the surgical procedure.