By Dr. Suman Kumar Nag, Orthopaedics
Knee is a complex structure of your body made up of bones, ligaments, tendons, articular cartilage, muscles and meniscus. Knee is a very important joint as it plays a crucial role in human movement and is also very much prone to injuries. Your shoulder like your knee is also composed of bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles. It is the most flexible joint of your body and because of its frequent movement is also vulnerable to injuries. Knee and shoulder injuries can happen due to various reasons such as while playing sports, carelessly falling down or accidents. Your knee is made up of many important structures, any of which can be injured.
Pain and swelling are the most common signs of knee injury. In addition, your knee may catch or lock up. Many knee injuries cause instability, the feeling that your knee is giving way.
The most common knee injuries are as follows-
- Fracture- In case of a fracture usually the patella gets affected. But sometimes the ends of femur or tibia can also get fractured.
- Sprains and Strains- This is the most common injury that can happen while playing sports. Sprains and strains refer to the injury of the ACL or MCL.
- Dislocation- Sometimes bones like femur or tibia gets displaced from their usual alignment.
- Ligament Injuries- Your ligaments may get injured if the position of your knee is in a bent condition during the injury. Ligament injuries are common to sportspersons and can also happen if you encounter an accident.
- Meniscal Tear and Tendon Tear- These are very common knee injuries which can happen while playing sports or falling down carelessly.
Treatment of Knee Injuries-
When you are first injured, the RICE method — rest, ice, gentle compression and elevation – can help speed your recovery. The type of treatment your doctor recommends will depend on several factors, such as the severity of your injury, your age, general health, and activity level.
Many knee injuries can be treated with simple measures, such as:
- Immobilization: Your doctor may recommend a brace to prevent your knee from moving.
- Physical Therapy: Specific exercises will restore function to your knee and strengthen the leg muscles that support it.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines: Drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen reduce pain and swelling.
Many fractures and injuries around the knee require surgery to fully restore function to your leg. In some cases – such as ACL, PCL, Meniscal tears, surgery can be done arthroscopically using small incisions and minimally Invasive techniques.
The most common shoulder injuries are stated below-
- Dislocation- Sometimes joints may get dislocated from their usual alignment
- Fractures- Fractures of the collar bone, humerus and scapular fracture
- Frozen Shoulder- It occurs due to the stiffness of the shoulder joint
- AC Joint Injury- The ligaments may get injured in this type of an injury. It is common in sportsperson or may also happen due to falling down
- Shoulder Impingement- In this case the muscles gets injured
- Rotator Cuff Disease (Tendinitis and Bursitis)- In tendinitis of the shoulder, tendons become inflamed (red, sore, and swollen) from being pinched by parts around the shoulder. However, Bursitis occurs when the bursa, a small fluid-filled sac that helps protect the shoulder joint is inflamed.
- Rotator Cuff Tear- Rotator cuff tendons can become inflamed from frequent use or aging. Sometimes they are injured from a fall on an outstretched hand.
Treatment of Shoulder Injuries-
- Early detection is the key to preventing serious shoulder injuries.
- Shoulder Exercises
- Anti-inflammatory medication also may be prescribed to reduce pain and swelling.
- Shoulder injuries can be treated by exercises and physiotherapy
- Shoulder arthroscopy surgery is a small key hole, Day care surgery done for various problems like Periarthritis, Recurrent Shoulder Dislocation, Rotator Cuff Tear.