Hypertension And Pregnancy!

Hypertension And Pregnancy!

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By Dr. Santosh Daphale, Gynaecology

 

One of the most common conditions that women develop while pregnancy is hypertension. Research reveals that hypertensive disorders affect about 2% to 3% of women during pregnancy.

 

Hypertensive disorders that affect pregnant women have been characterized into 4 types-

 

1. Chronic Hypertension- This category of hypertension in general precedes a pregnancy. Most of the times it gets diagnosed in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Chronic hypertension can either be mild or severe and is said to complicate about 5% of pregnancies in general. Medication for chronic hypertension should be immediately started, as it can create complications like premature birth, caesarean delivery and even death of the foetus.

 

2. Pre-Eclapmsia- The onset of Pre-eclapmsia generally starts after 20 weeks of gestation. Eclampsia which is the development of sudden convulsions may affect patients who suffer from Pre-eclapmsia. Certain factors that lead to the onset of Pre-eclapmsia are –

 

  1. Chronic hypertension
  2. Chronic renal disease
  3. High body mass index
  4. Multiple gestation
  5. Preeclampsia is a prior pregnancy

 

3. Pre-Eclampsia Superimposed on Chronic Hypertension- Women with chronic hypertension also have a risk of developing superimposed Pre-eclampsia. Thus, patients with chronic hypertension during pregnancy should be carefully treated to avoid complications. In severe cases of chronic hypertension with superimposed pre-eclampsia, there are chances of both the mother and child losing their lives.

 

4. Gestational Hypertension- This category of hypertensive disorders is also known as pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). It generally affects an expecting female after 20 weeks of gestation. A patient may be diagnosed with PIH if she has -

 

  • High blood pressure
  • A record of normal blood pressure on previous occasions
  • Lack of protein in the urine
  • No onset of Pre-eclapmsia- eclampsia.

 

Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy should be carefully treated as they can cause severe complications as compared to pregnant women with a normal blood pressure.