Congenital Anomalies Of The Uterus – Types And Treatment!

Congenital Anomalies Of The Uterus – Types And Treatment!

GePH2YDBy Dr. Ashwini Talpe, Gynaecology

Congenital anomalies of the uterus refer to malformations or abnormal growth of the uterus of the woman from birth. These birth defects may not have any symptoms and may be discovered only when a woman undergoes an ultrasound testing or examinations upon having difficulties conceiving. The primary cause of uterine anomalies is that in the embryonic stage, the uterus is formed by tissues from two ridges on the two sides of the body which then fuse together in the middle to form the complete structure; however if this fusion does not take place properly or normally, it leads to malformation of the uterus.

Types of uterine anomalies:

  1. Septate Uterus - In this type of malformation, the uterus is divided by a septum, which is a muscular or fibrous wall. The septum may extend partially into the uterus or may extend up till the cervix.
  2. Bicornuate Uterus – In this anomaly, instead of the uterus being normal, pear shaped, it is heart shaped with a deep dent on top. This allows for less space for a fetus to grow and hence may lead to pregnancy complications or miscarriages.
  3. Unicornuate uterus – In this type of anomaly, the tissue that forms the uterus does not develop properly and hence the uterus is only half the size of a normal uterus and has only one fallopian tube. Hence, of the two ovaries, only one is connected to the uterus.
  4. Didelphic uterus – In this anomaly, the woman has two separate uteruses, each with its own cervix. This type of abnormality does not necessarily lead to pregnancy complications; however, women with a didelphic uterus are at a greater risk for preterm delivery and miscarriages.

Diagnosis and treatment

Most of the uterine anamolies are undiagnosed and need to be investigated in case of recurrent abortion, preterm delivery and difficulty in conceiving. The best way to diagnose congenital anamoly is by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. It can be treated with surgery that is called as unification surgery in case of bicornuate uterus. Septum resection in case of septate uterus. These surgeries will help to improve fertity.