By Dr. Prakash Kotak, General Surgery
Gall bladder is a small digestive structure that acts as a storage sac of bile and also as connecting sac of liver secretions with the duodenum. When stones are formed in this gallbladder or in its path towards the intestine it is called as gallstones. These gallstones are made up of cholesterol, calcium salts and bile salts. These stones thereby occlude the pathway of bile juice from travelling towards the duodenum for digestion of fatty food items. Removal of this gallbladder stone is called as cholecystectomy.
There are two common type of gallstone surgery:
- Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy -The surgeon make incision on the abdominal skin and special laparoscopic instruments are inserted through the hole to reach the stones. The laparoscope has a camera to guide the entry of the instrument for the surgeon. The stone is crushed into small pieces and are removed through the scopy.
- Open surgery (laparotomy) -The surgeon makes a wide open incision to remove the stones. It is much essential to note the bleeding and clotting factors and other blood profile of the person before laparotomy.
- After a gallstone surgery the patient can return back to their home within a day but if it is an open surgery the person needs at least one week of hospitalisation.
- Patient may feel mild pain over the shoulders which is generally relieved with the pain killers.
- Encourage the patient to cough frequently with support to the surgical site to remove the secretions accumulated in the lungs as an effect on anaesthesia given during surgery.
- Advice the patient to initiate mobilisation as early as possible after the surgery to get relieve the effect of anaesthesia sooner.
- The person can get back to their normal routine in 7-10days if it is a laparoscopic surgery and 2-3 wks if it is an open laparotomy surgery.