By Dr. Piyush Kapoor, General Physician
While getting pregnant may seem like a simple enough process, it is fairly complex as it needs the physiological factors in both the bodies of the partners to work just right. Let’s look at some of the common infertility problems that men and women might encounter:
Common Causes of Female Infertility-
1. Abnormalities with the Uterus or Cervix: Abnormal shape of the uterus, issues with the cervical mucus which glide the sperm to the egg, or blockage of the path due to uterine fibroids. These will result in the sperm not being able to reach the egg and thus result in fertilization not occurring.
2. Ovulation Disorders: These disorders are usually caused by hormonal problems and may disrupt the normal release of eggs within the menstrual cycle. It may be caused due to polycystic ovary syndrome or due to the excessive reproduction of the male hormones testosterone within the human body.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition where tissues that grow within the uterus start growing outside it causing painful symptoms as well as the inability to conceive.
4. A Damaged or Blocked Fallopian Tube: This is also a common cause which blocks the release of the eggs from the ovaries into the uterus. The blocks may be caused by inflammation, sexual disorders or endometriosis.
Common Causes of Male Infertility-
1. Continued exposure to toxic chemicals: Habits like smoking, excessive alcohol drinking or exposure to chemicals due to professional requirement such as pesticides, radiation or testosterone injections can hamper sperm production and cause infertility.
2. Problems with the delivery of sperm: Even if sperm production is fine, but problems with the delivery such as retrograde ejaculation, premature ejaculation and other disorders can result in no delivery of sperm.
3. Treatments related to other diseases: Certain medications for treating other problems can result in severely low sperm count or poor quality of sperm such as chemotherapy during the treatment of cancer
4. Hormonal issues within the body: Hypertension, blood sugar and other conditions may result in hormonal changes which may lower the sperm count and thus also result in infertility.