By Dr. Beena Bansal, Endocrinology
Diabetes is a dreadful disease cure of which is not yet discovered, but it can be controlled by taking medications. Diabetes occurs due to the imbalance in the blood glucose levels. It is believed that people who are the chronic patients of diabetes, the lesser the blood sugar levels are out of control, and therefore, greater is the risk to have complications. The complications caused due to diabetes can be life-threatening or may cause certain disabilities. The complications that are caused due to diabetes are mentioned below:
1. Heart disease: The increase in the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease associated with chest pain, heart attack, constriction of arteries which is called atherosclerosis. It is more likely that one can suffer from heart disease if the person is suffering from diabetes.
2. Neuropathy: Neuropathy occurs when there is damage to the nerves. When the glucose level is high, the blood vessels can cause injury to the walls of capillaries that helps in providing nutrients to the nerves especially in the legs. It may lead to the numbness, pain at the tip of the toes or fingers and then it can spread to the upper portion. This may also lead to digestion problems such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea etc.
3. Nephropathy: Nephropathy refers to the damage to the kidneys. The kidneys are composed of millions of clusters of blood vessels called glomeruli that help in filtration of waste substances from the body. If the damage is severe, it can lead to kidney failure and the person may be in need of dialysis or the transplant of the kidney.
4. Retinopathy: The blood vessel of the retina may get damaged due to diabetes which can cause partial blindness. It can also cause a greater risk of vision problems like cataracts and glaucoma.
5. Damage to foot: Poor blood flow in the feet region can increase the likelihood of complications in the foot. Cuts and blisters, if are not treated in a proper manner, then it may cause more chronic infections and it can even require amputation of toe, foot or leg.
6. Skin problems: Diabetes increases the susceptibility to the various skin infections caused by bacteria and fungi.
7. Hearing problems: These are also prevalent in a diabetic patient.
8. Alzheimer’s disease: diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of dementia.
9. Depression: A person may feel depressed due to diabetes as a lot of medications and care has to be done plus the person becomes lethargic too easily and may feel less efficient.
There can be various complications that are caused due to gestational diabetes, i.e. complications in the delivery of the healthy baby. The problems such as the excess growth of the baby which lead to C section birth and normal vaginal delivery is not possible. The baby may develop a lower level of blood sugar as the production of insulin is higher. The babies who are developed as a result of gestational diabetes are more prone to develop obesity and type 2 diabetes in later life.