By Dr. Asha Niranjan Ghokhale, Gynaecology
There are two types of Diabetes which may occur during pregnancy, Type 1 and Type 2 and together they form the most common complications to pregnant women. The occurrence of diabetes during pregnancy also increases the chances for the newborn child to contract diabetes in early childhood.
Symptoms of Diabetes in pregnancy include:
• Type 1 Diabetes entails increase in thirst and appetite, more frequent urination, abysmal loss of weight, declining vision, and tiredness. This is an autoimmune disorder which can be treated with adequate administration of insulin.
• Diabetes of Type 2 is accompanied by symptoms like lack of bladder control, kidney infections, reduced immunity and wounds that take longer than usual to heal, increased thirst, constant appetite and insatiable hunger. This sort of diabetes is more because of the hereditary history of the disease, advanced age, obesity, and lack of enough exercise.
Risks of Diabetes in pregnancy include:
• Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia occur when the blood glucose levels rise or fall abysmally thereby affecting the fetus and also the prospective mother by not providing the required amount of energy. Hypoglycemia also causes mood swings. Hyperglycemic patients do not receive adequate insulin which causes further complications and requires insulin dosage.
• Risks to the newborn include Macrosomia where the baby grows abnormally large inside the uterus because of an excess of insulin. This can not only cause complications to the mother during delivery but too much pressure on the baby too. Jaundice is also a very common problem for babies growing inside diabetic mothers.
Post delivery, a healthy regimen with proper diet and exercise must be maintained and the baby must be monitored for any side effect that might appear because of diabetes.